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'부패자금세탁보고서'에 해당되는 글 1건

  1. 2010.02.07 부정축재자 리스트[PEP LIST]가 있더라
카테고리 없음2010. 2. 7. 08:56
미국 연방상원 상설조사위원회가 지난주 부패자금세탁보고서를 발표했습니다
이 보고서를 찬찬히 살펴보니 미국정부가 내부적으로 이른바 부정축재자 리스트, PEP LIST를 작성해
관리하고 있음을 알게 됐습니다

PEP 란 POLITICALLY EXPOSED PERSONS 란 말의 약자로 우리말로 하면 한마디로 부정축재자 리스트였습니다
PEP 의 정의를 살펴보면 국가원수나 국가 주요공직자, 판사, 정당관계자, 왕족등 한나라에서 공직을 수행하면서
영향력을 행사할 수 있는 사람들로서 직위를 이용, 부정적 방법으로 금전적 이익을 취한 사람을 의미하는 것 같습니다

또 PEP의 FAMILY란 PEP의 배우자, 자녀, 부모, 친척, 혈연, 결혼으로 생성된 친척[인척] 을 의미합니다
CLOSE ASSOCIATES 란 PEP의 친밀한 동료, 말 그대로 심복을 뜻합니다

즉 PEP는 물론이고 그들의 친척, 인척, 심복들의 리스트를 작성해 관리하고 있으며 미국내 은행들은
애국법등에 의해 이들의 금융자산들에 대해 엄중감시해야 한다고 합니다

PEP LIST 는 일반에 공개되지 않아 그 대상을 알 수 없으며 은행들도 쉽게 이 정보를 알 수 없어 
의심나는 돈이 입출금되는 고객이 PEP인지 판단하는데 어려움이 많다고 합니다 

PEP LIST 는  미국 재무부등에 의해 작성, 업데이트되며 특정 PEP가 해당국가에서 재판을 통해
부정축재등의 혐의가 입증됐을 경우 해당국가가 판결문등을 첨부해 미국 재무부에 PEP지정을 요청할 수 있습니다

또 해당국가 국민들이 판결문등을 제출하거나 연방의원들에게 판결문을 제출, PEP로 지정해 달라는 압력을
가할 수도 있습니다

판결문등이 제출된다고 해서 그 대상자가 PEP LIST에 오르는 것은 아니며 재무부의 엄밀한 심사를 거치게 됩니다
그러나 PEP LIST에 오르게 될 경우 PEP자신, 친척, 인척, 심복들과 그 관계법인 명의로 된 미국내 자산등은
엄중 감시되며 심할 경우 압류된다고 합니다 

미국의 예만 들었습니다만 국제적으로도 부정축재자의 자금 세탁이나 테러의심자금의 이동등을 제한하기 위해
만들어진 국제기구에 한국이 가입했으므로 한국정부가 부정축재자와 의심스런 자금에 대해 신고를 할 의무도 있으며
신고를 할 경우 국제기구 가입국가들이 이들의 자금을 감시하고 문제가 있을 경우 적절한 조치를 취하게 됩니다

앞으로 우리도 부정축재자가 있을 경우 판결문등을 첨부, 재무부에 보냄으로써 PEP LIST에 등재될 수 있도록 하는
적극적인 활동을 펼쳐야 되겠습니다

아마 수천억원대의 비자금을 조성한 혐의로 추징금이 선고된 2명의 전직 대통령이 그 대상이 될 수 있으리라 봅니다
너무나 명백한 범죄행위를 저질렀으므로 판결문등을 첨부해서 보낸다면 그들의 미국내 재산을 추적할 수 있고 친인척들의
재산에 대해 제재를 가할 수 있겠다 생각됩니다

참고로 며칠전 정몽훈 전 성우전자회장에 대한 소송서류를 공개했습니다만 한국예금보험공사가 한국내 판결문과 지급명령등을 첨부해서 미국에서 소송을 제기했고 다툼의 여지도 없이 승소한 것으로 압니다

Q. 1. How to define "Politically Exposed Persons"?

A. The term "politically exposed persons" ("PEP") applies to persons who perform important public functions for a state. The definition used by regulators or in guidance is usually very general and leaves room for interpretation. For example the Swiss Federal Banking Commission in its guidelines on money laundering uses the term "person occupying an important public function", the US interagency guidance uses "senior foreign political figure" and the BIS paper Customer due diligence for banks says "potentates".

The term should be understood to include persons whose current or former („Rule of thumb“: 1 year after giving up any political function) position can attract publicity beyond the borders of the country concerned and whose financial circumstances may be the subject of additional public interest. In specific cases, local factors in the country concerned, such as the political and social environment, should be considered when deciding whether a person falls within the definition.

The following examples are intended to serve as aids to interpretation:

  • Heads of state, government and cabinet ministers;
  • Influential functionaries in nationalized industries and government administration;
  • Senior judges;
  • Senior party functionaries;
  • Senior and/or influential officials, functionaries and military leaders and people with similar functions in international or supranational organizations;
  • Members of ruling royal families;
  • Senior and/or influential representatives of religious organizations (if these functions are connected with political, judicial, military or administrative responsibilities)

Q. 2. How to define "families"?

A. The term families should include close family members such as spouses, children, parents and siblings and may also include other blood relatives and relatives by marriage.


Q. 3. How to define "close associates"?

A. The category of closely associated persons should include close business colleagues and personal advisors/consultants to the politically exposed person as well as persons who obviously benefit significantly from being close to such a person.


Q. 4. How should assets of political parties be treated?

A. Political parties are not covered by the definition "Politically Exposed Person". However, Banks should consider to apply heightened scrutiny to business relationships holding assets of foreign political parties.


Q. 5.How to proceed to recognize a Politically Exposed Person or families/close associates of such a person?

A. Identifying Politically Exposed Persons can be a difficult undertaking, particularly, if the customer fails to provide important information or even gives false information. Despite all the banks' efforts at recognizing Politically Exposed Persons, it is a fact that they do not have the necessary powers, means nor information at their disposal to detect such persons. Banks are restricted in what information they can obtain. They must rely on the information they are given by clients and that can be gleaned from business documents or from the media. In particular, when close associates or families of a Politically Exposed Person open a business relationship with a bank it is often impossible to establish that relationship a "PEP relationship" on the basis of the limited information available to the banks.

The following prompts might - in addition to the standardized KyC procedures - be appropriate to recognize a Politically Exposed Person:

  • The question of whether clients or other persons involved in the business relationship (see below) perform a political function should form part of the standardized account opening process, especially in cases of clients from corruption-prone countries.
  • To let client advisor deal exclusively with clients from a specific country/region might improve their knowledge and understanding of the political situation in that country/region.
  • The issue of Politically Exposed Persons should form part of the regular KyC training programs
  • Banks may use databases listing names of Politically Exposed Persons (and their entourage). In this regard it would be helpful if authorities issuing directives on how to deal with Politically Exposed Person would support the banks.

Q. 6. What means "heightened scrutiny"?

A. In addition to the generally applicable "Know your customer" rules a detailed approval process, including a function independent from the business line (e.g. Compliance) and senior management approval should apply. In addition, such business relationships should be subjected to additional controls and a more detailed examination at least once a year.


Q. 7. What means "heightened scrutiny"?

A. Heightened scrutiny has to be applied whenever the Politically Exposed Persons/families/ associates is the contracting party of the Bank or the beneficial owner of the assets concerned, or has power of disposal over said assets by virtue of a power of attorney or signature authorization.