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 로버트 게이츠 국방장관. '북한이나 이란등이 룰을 따르지 않을 경우에는 모든 옵션을 검토할 것'
 When it comes to North Korea and Iran, Gates said “all options are on the table,” if they don’t agree to “play by the rules.”


Read more: DoD Buzz | NPR Says Goodbye MIRV

Key NPR conclusions:

• The United States will continue to strengthen conventional capabilities and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in deterring non-nuclear attacks, with the objective of making deterrence of nuclear attack on the United States or our allies and partners the sole purpose of U.S. nuclear weapons.

• The United States would only consider the use of nuclear weapons in extreme circumstances to defend the vital interests of the United States or its allies and partners.

• The United States will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that are party to the NPT and in compliance with their nuclear non-proliferation obligations.



http://www.defense.gov/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=12627

NPR원문파일
Read more: DoD Buzz | NPR Says Goodbye MIRV

DoD Begins QDR, NPR Processes

             Today the Department of Defense announced the commencement of the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) and the Nuclear Posture Review (NPR). The processes will culminate in final reports to Congress due in early 2010.  
 
             The QDR, which is conducted every four years, is one of the principal means by which the tenets of the National Defense Strategy are translated into potentially new policies, capabilities and initiatives. “The purpose of the QDR is to assess the threats and challenges the Nation faces, and then integrate strategies, resources, forces, and capabilities necessary to prevent conflict or conclude it on terms that are favorable to the Nation now and in the future,” said General James E. Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
 
            “The QDR takes a long-term, strategic view of the Department of Defense and will explore ways to balance achieving success in current conflicts with preparing for long-term challenges," said William J. Lynn, deputy secretary of defense. "The review will also look at ways to institutionalize irregular warfare capabilities while maintaining the United States' existing strategic and technological edge in conventional warfare.”
 
            The process for the 2010 QDR will embrace a whole of government approach where the Department of Defense will consult with other U.S. Government departments and agencies and appropriate Congressional committees. There will also be consultations with key allies and partners. The 2010 QDR will address emerging challenges and explore ways to improve the balance of efforts and resources between trying to prevail in current conflicts and preparing for future contingencies, while also institutionalizing capabilities such as counterinsurgency and foreign military assistance.
 
            The QDR is a legislatively-mandated (USC 10, Sec. 118 (a)) review of DoD strategy and priorities. Previous QDRs were conducted in 1997, 2001, and 2006.
 
            The NPR will be conducted in consultation with the Departments of Energy and State. The purpose of the NPR is to establish U.S. nuclear deterrence policy, strategy, and posture for the next five to 10 years and to provide a basis for the negotiation of a follow-on agreement to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).  This report will be submitted concurrently with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review.
 
            The NPR is a legislatively-mandated (National Defense Authorization Act FY08, Sec 1070/Public Law 110-181) comprehensive review of the U.S. nuclear deterrence policy, strategy and force posture for the next five to 10 years. Previous NPRs were conducted in 1994 and 2002.


NPR 1 20100406
NPR 2 20100406
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 로버트 게이츠 국방장관. '북한이나 이란등이 룰을 따르지 않을 경우에는 모든 옵션을 검토할 것'
 When it comes to North Korea and Iran, Gates said “all options are on the table,” if they don’t agree to “play by the rules.”


Read more: DoD Buzz | NPR Says Goodbye MIRV

Key NPR conclusions:

• The United States will continue to strengthen conventional capabilities and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in deterring non-nuclear attacks, with the objective of making deterrence of nuclear attack on the United States or our allies and partners the sole purpose of U.S. nuclear weapons.

• The United States would only consider the use of nuclear weapons in extreme circumstances to defend the vital interests of the United States or its allies and partners.

• The United States will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapons states that are party to the NPT and in compliance with their nuclear non-proliferation obligations.



http://www.defense.gov/releases/release.aspx?releaseid=12627

NPR원문파일
Read more: DoD Buzz | NPR Says Goodbye MIRV

DoD Begins QDR, NPR Processes

             Today the Department of Defense announced the commencement of the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) and the Nuclear Posture Review (NPR). The processes will culminate in final reports to Congress due in early 2010.  
 
             The QDR, which is conducted every four years, is one of the principal means by which the tenets of the National Defense Strategy are translated into potentially new policies, capabilities and initiatives. “The purpose of the QDR is to assess the threats and challenges the Nation faces, and then integrate strategies, resources, forces, and capabilities necessary to prevent conflict or conclude it on terms that are favorable to the Nation now and in the future,” said General James E. Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
 
            “The QDR takes a long-term, strategic view of the Department of Defense and will explore ways to balance achieving success in current conflicts with preparing for long-term challenges," said William J. Lynn, deputy secretary of defense. "The review will also look at ways to institutionalize irregular warfare capabilities while maintaining the United States' existing strategic and technological edge in conventional warfare.”
 
            The process for the 2010 QDR will embrace a whole of government approach where the Department of Defense will consult with other U.S. Government departments and agencies and appropriate Congressional committees. There will also be consultations with key allies and partners. The 2010 QDR will address emerging challenges and explore ways to improve the balance of efforts and resources between trying to prevail in current conflicts and preparing for future contingencies, while also institutionalizing capabilities such as counterinsurgency and foreign military assistance.
 
            The QDR is a legislatively-mandated (USC 10, Sec. 118 (a)) review of DoD strategy and priorities. Previous QDRs were conducted in 1997, 2001, and 2006.
 
            The NPR will be conducted in consultation with the Departments of Energy and State. The purpose of the NPR is to establish U.S. nuclear deterrence policy, strategy, and posture for the next five to 10 years and to provide a basis for the negotiation of a follow-on agreement to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).  This report will be submitted concurrently with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review.
 
            The NPR is a legislatively-mandated (National Defense Authorization Act FY08, Sec 1070/Public Law 110-181) comprehensive review of the U.S. nuclear deterrence policy, strategy and force posture for the next five to 10 years. Previous NPRs were conducted in 1994 and 2002.


NPR 1 20100406
NPR 2 20100406
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미 ‘핵 탑재 토마호크 퇴역’ 한국엔 안 알렸다
원문출처 : 중앙일보 http://news.joins.com/article/288/4045288.html?ctg=1300&cloc=home|list|list1

미국이 핵탄두를 장착한 토마호크 미사일의 퇴역과 관련된 정책을 일본에는 사전 통보하면서 한국에는 알리지 않은 것으로 4일 확인됐다. 군 고위 관계자는 이날 “미국의 핵 장착 토마호크 미사일의 퇴역에 관한 어떤 내용도 미국으로부터 공식적으로 들은 바가 없다”고 밝혔다. 미국은 앞서 핵 장착 토마호크를 퇴역시킨다는 방침을 일본 정부에 통보했다고 일본 언론들이 지난달 말 보도했다.

핵 장착 토마호크는 미국이 우방에 제공하는 핵우산의 핵심 전력이다. 정확도가 높고 폭발 규모가 작아 북한의 핵 위협에 대응할 실질적인 수단이다. 따라서 핵 장착 토마호크의 퇴역은 한·미 정상회담 등에서 미국이 한국에 제공키로 한 ‘확장된 억제력(extended deterrence)’의 약화를 의미할 수 있다. 미국의 이 방침은 이달 발표할 ‘핵태세 검토보고서 ’에 포함될 전망이라고 일본 언론들은 전했다.

국방부 관계자는 “미국이 핵 장착 토마호크의 퇴역에 관한 정보를 한국 측에 알려주지 않은 것은 한국과 일본의 다른 방위체제 때문으로 보인다”고 말했다. 그는 “한국에는 한반도 방위를 책임진 한미연합사령관이 있어 필요 시 ‘확장된 억제력’을 자동적으로 사용할 수 있다”고 설명했다. 그러나 일본은 미국이 일본의 방위를 전적으로 책임지지 않는 공동방위체제여서 일본이 핵 장착 토마호크의 퇴역을 민감하게 받아들일 수 있다는 것이다. 이 관계자는 “북한이 전면적 남침을 시도하거나 핵무기를 사용하는 상황이 발생하면 연합사령관은 재래식 정밀타격 유도 무기 등 다양한 ‘확장된 억제력’을 사용할 수 있다”며 “이 문제에 대해 앞으로 양국이 구체적으로 논의할 계획”이라고 덧붙였다
==============================================================================================================

토마호크 미사일의 퇴역, 유럽 6개국에서의 전략핵무기철수등 미국이 북한 시리아 이란에 대한 대응, 유럽의 안보등에 있어
핵무기사용을 줄인다는 방침을 정했으며 이미 지난 2월3일 발표한  QDR에서 이를 시사했다고 합니다
아래는 미국과학자협회에 게재된 내용입니다 댓글중에는 한반도 관련 내용도 있습니다 관심있는 분들은 참고하시기 바랍니다
4개년 국방태세 보고서 QDR 원문도 첨부합니다

[첨부 : 2010 QDR ]






euronukes2010
February 23, 2010 

United States to Retire Nuclear-Armed Tomahawk Missiles

Japanese Legislators Urge Obama Administration to Restrict the Purpose of U.S. Nuclear Weapons to Deterrence

WASHINGTON (February 23, 2010) — The Japanese press reported yesterday that the United States will retire its nuclear-armed Tomahawk cruise missiles, signifying the end of an ongoing debate within the Obama administration over the future of these weapons. The Tomahawk's status is one of several contentious issues the administration has worked to resolve as part of its soon-to-be-released Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), which will guide U.S. nuclear weapons policy for the next five to 10 years.

During the 1980s, the U.S. Navy deployed approximately 300 nuclear Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles on surface ships and submarines. In 1992, following the end of the Cold War, President George H.W. Bush withdrew these weapons and placed them in storage in the United States, where they have remained available for redeployment on submarines. They were scheduled to be retired in 2013, but in May 2009, the high-level Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States recommended retaining—and presumably refurbishing—the weapons, based on testimony by several Japanese diplomats. The commission, called the Perry-Schlesinger Commission after its chair and vice-chair, former U.S. defense secretaries William Perry and James Schlesinger, argued that the nuclear Tomahawk was a key component of the U.S. nuclear umbrella, and that Japan would be "very concerned" if the United States retired the weapon.

Since last spring, however, the Tomahawk issue has attracted the attention of Japanese officials and the general public. In response to questions from Japanese Diet members, Japanese Foreign Minister Katsuya Okada launched an investigation into the diplomats' testimony to the Perry-Schlesinger Commission. In late December, Okada sent a letter to U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates disavowing the testimony, stating that it did not represent Japan's official position.

"Retiring the Tomahawk missile is an important step in fulfulling President Obama's pledge to revamp U.S. nuclear weapons policy, which is still stuck in the Cold War," said Gregory Kulacki, a senior analyst with the Union of Concern Scientists' (UCS) Global Security Program. "And this decision appears to be more in line with Japanese thinking about nuclear weapons than what was reflected by the Perry-Schlesinger Commission."

The Japanese position on nuclear weapons was amplified last week when 204 members of Japan's Diet sent a letter to President Obama supporting his efforts to reduce the role of nuclear weapons. The Diet members also called on the United States to "immediately adopt a declaratory policy stating that the 'sole purpose' of U.S. nuclear weapons is to deter others from using such weapons against the United States or U.S. allies."

The Obama administration will define the purpose of U.S. nuclear weapons as part of its Nuclear Posture Review, which it is expected to release in early March. UCS has urged the administration to adopt the same policy the Diet members spelled out in their letter.

=========================================================================================================

Tuesday, Feb. 23, 2010

U.S. to retire nuclear Tomahawk missiles

Japan told step won't lessen atomic arms deterrence

Kyodo News

The United States has informally told Japan it will retire its sea-based Tomahawk cruise missiles carrying nuclear warheads, in line with President Barack Obama's policy to pursue a world free of atomic weapons, government sources said Monday.

Washington said the move would not affect the nuclear umbrella, addressing concerns in Tokyo about the step's effect on U.S. deterrence against potential attacks from China, North Korea or other countries, the sources said.

The retirement will probably be stipulated in the Nuclear Posture Review, a new nuclear strategic guideline the Obama administration is slated to submit to Congress next month, they said.

U.S. subs carrying nuclear-tipped Tomahawks called in Japan during the Cold War, but the missiles were later removed for storage at bases on the U.S. mainland.

Their retirement will also likely affect debate in Japan over Tokyo's ongoing investigation into a secret pact with Washington to allow the U.S. military to bring nuclear weapons to Japan, because decommissioning will rule out the possibility of nuclear missiles coming into the country.

Past port calls and passage through Japanese waters by submarines armed with Tomahawks have raised controversy in terms of Tokyo's three nonnuclear principles of not possessing, producing or allowing nuclear arms on its territory.

Washington notified Tokyo earlier this year of its policy to gradually decommission the nuclear Tomahawks, citing the cost for maintaining the missiles, the sources said.

The U.S. side also explained that it can maintain its nuclear umbrella with other nuclear and conventional capabilities, the sources said.

Officials from both governments have already begun discussions on the future of the U.S. deterrence on the premise the Tomahawk will be retired, they said.

Last February, before the Liberal Democratic Party was ousted from power, Japanese diplomats concerned about a weakening of the U.S. deterrence asked the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States that Tokyo be consulted ahead of any decision on the Tomahawk missiles.

The commission urged the U.S. government in its final report in May to take steps to retain the Tomahawk.
================================================================================================

Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles to be Scrapped, U.S. Says

A forthcoming U.S. nuclear strategy review is likely to call for elimination of the country's nuclear-tipped Tomahawk cruise missiles, Japanese officials told Kyodo News today (see GSN, July 31, 2009).

Plans to slowly phase out the missiles, unofficially communicated to Tokyo earlier this year, were prompted in part by the expense of caring for the weapons. The United States pulled the missiles from its submarines as the Cold War ended, but the weapons were maintained in case they again became necessary, U.S. nuclear experts said.

The matter is expected to be addressed in the new U.S. Nuclear Posture Review (see GSN, Jan. 6). Washington assured Tokyo that the move would not alter U.S. extended deterrence guarantees to Japan.

A policy shift ruling out the possibility of nuclear Tomahawk-equipped submarines docking in Japan could affect a probe into a secret agreement that allowed nuclear-armed U.S. military vessels and aircraft to make such stopovers, according to Kyodo News (see GSN, Jan. 29; Kyodo News/Breitbart.com, Feb. 21).

U.S. Deputy Assistant Defense Secretary Bradley Roberts met Thursday with Japanese diplomatic and defense officials to address nuclear deterrence policy, the Daily Yomiuri reported. The encounter marked the first consultation on the topic between the two powers.

The Japanese officials reportedly asked how the the United States would compensate for eliminating nuclear weapons used to protect their nation. In addition, the representatives addressed the ongoing investigations of alleged secret deals between the countries.

The sides intend to prepare a report in November outlining the outcome of the discussions, Japanese officials indicated (Satoshi Ogawa, Daily Yomiuri, Feb. 21).

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리제트 리관련 삼성해명 일부 거짓판명, 원본은 공항당국이 아니라 마약나른 전세기회사에 보내졌다 http://andocu.tistory.com/3035
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CURRENT ISSUE2009.12.04 16:23
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전세계 미군 군용기 배치 현황 - 2014년까지 - US ARMY PLAN 2006
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CURRENT ISSUE2009.12.04 16:19
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